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A – D

  • Accomodation (Focusing) – The change in dioptic power of the intraocular lens to see an object near to them more clearly
  • Acquired – A disease or habit that has developed after birth
  • Acrylic – The major component in artificial eyes
  • Adhesion – An abnormal adherence of one tissue to another by fibrous bands
  • Adipose – Fat tissue
  • Akinesia – The lack of movement due to the loss or impairment of motor function
  • Alginate – A type of impression material
  • Allergy – The hypersensitive or pathological reaction to environmental factors or substances, such as pollens, foods, dust, or microorganisms
  • Amblyopia – Visul loss due to a defect in image processing by the brain
  • Anaplastologist – One who fits and fabricates facial prosthetics or somato prosthesis
  • Anomaly – An irregularity or abnormality replicated in a prosthesis
  • Anophthalmos – True absence of the eyeball
  • Anterior – The front or forward part of an object
  • Ariel Perspective – The visual phenomenon that distant obects appear hazier than closer objects
  • A.S.O. – American Society of Ocularists
  • Asymmetry – Lack of similarity in corresponding parts on opposite sides of the body
  • Atrophied – Shrunken
  • Atonic – Lacking normal tone or strength
  • B.A.D.O. – Board Approved Diplomate Ocularist by the American Society of Ocularists
  • B.C.O. – Board Certified Ocularist by the American Society of Ocularists
  • Bilateral – In reference to both sides
  • Canthus – The angle formed at the inner or outer junction of the upper and lower eyelids
  • Chemosis – Severe edema of the conjunctiva
  • Cicatrix – New tissue formed in the healing of a wound
  • Cilia – Eyelashes
  • Conformer – A clear or white plastic shape to keep the curved shape of the eyelids
  • Congenital – A condition that is present at birth
  • Conjunctiva – The mucous membrane tissue the forms the posterior layer of the eyelids and the anterior layer of the eyeball
  • Conjunctivitis – Inflammation of the mucous membrane lining of the eyelid and or eyeball
  • Contraction (Contracture) – Pathologic shortening or shrinkage
  • Convergence – The eyes look together at objects nearby
  • Cosmesis – For the benefit of appearance
  • Crazing – Minute hairline cracks in the acrylic
  • Culdesac – The pocket or space behind the eyelids, former by the eyelids and the posterior wall of the eye socket
  • Custom Ocular Prosthesis An artificial eye that is fitted and fabricated to all of the specific requirements of an individual patient, specifically addressing all aspects of proper fitting, fabrication, and the replication of iris and sclera
  • Cyst – A tissue sac containing fluid and or other material
  • Delamination – A separation between acrylic layers
  • Depth – The relative distance of objects and their spacial relationship to each other

E – K

  • Ectropion – An eversion, or turning outward of the eyelid
  • Edema – Excessive amounts of fluid in the intercellular tissue spaces of the body
  • Empirical Fitting Technique – A fitting procedure in which the fitting shape is selected based on the ocularist’s visual conception of the size and contours of the anophthalmic socket
  • Endophthalmitis – A severe infection of the inside of the eye which can cause blindness
  • Enlargement (Buildup) – An increase in the size of the prosthesis, most commonly to compensate for changes in the anophthalmic socket
  • Enophthalmos – The abnormal recession of the eye or ocular prosthesis, when compared to the fellow eye
  • Entropion – An inversion, or inward turning of the eyelid
  • Enucleation – Complete surgical removal of the eyeball
  • Enucleation Implant – Designed to replace lost orbital volume following surgical removal of the eye, and to provide a means for transmission of motility to the prosthesis
  • Epithelium – Tissue covering the outer surfaces of body structures
  • E.U.A. – Evaluation Under Anesthesia
  • Evisceration – Surgical removal of the contents of the eyeball, with retention of the sclera and or cornea
  • Evisceration Implant – Designed to replace lost orbital volume following surgical removal of the eye, and to provide a means for transmission of motility to the prosthesis
  • Excess mucus – Chronic exudate or discharge
  • Exenteration – Surgery that removes all or part of the structures of the orbit
  • Exposure – Incomplete closure or covering of tissue over the enucleation or evisceration implant, revealing part of the implant
  • Exophthalmos – The abnormal protrusion of the eyeball
  • Extraocular Muscles – Muscles outside of the eyeball that move the eye
  • Extrusion – The expulsion of an orbital implant from the anophthalmic socket or eviscerated globe
  • Fitting Shape – A basic shape of plastic or wax used by the ocularist to begin the fitting of the socket
  • Fixation – Maintaining eye position and focusing gaze on a target
  • Fornix (Fornices) – The peripheral extreme of the enucleated socket, where the conjunctiva covering the eyeball meets the conjunctiva lining the eyelid
  • Giant Papillary Conjunctivitis (G.P.C.) – Allergic type of conjunctival inflammation on the undersurface of the eyelids
  • Glaucoma – Disease causing nerve damage to the optic nerve, usually by too much pressure in the eyeball
  • Globe (Bulbis Oculi) – The eyeball apart from its appendages
  • Granulation – The formation of minute, rounded, fleshy, connective tissue projections on the surface of a wound, ulcer, or inflamed tissue surface in the process of healing
  • Hematoma – Swelling of tissues due to a large hemorrhage
  • Hyperemia – Eye redness caused by increased blood flow in the conjunctival blood vessels
  • Implant Migration – The spontaneous, or gradual change in placement of an enucleation implant from its intended, original position
  • Impression Tray – A multiperforated shell used for taking impressions
  • Inferior – Situated below, or directed downward
  • Interposition (Overlapping) – A visual phenomenon in which the view of an object is partially blocked by another object
  • Inversion – Turning inward
  • Iris – The colored portion of the eye
  • Keratopathy – Any disease of the cornea

L – P

  • Lapsus – The dropping of a part
  • Lateral – A position away from the midline, towards the side
  • Limbus – Transition between cornea and sclera
  • Linear Perspective – A visual phenomenon in which parallel lines converge in the distance
  • Macrophthalmos – An abnormally large eye, usually a result of of infantile glaucoma
  • Macula – Sensitive area of the retina responsible for central vision
  • Macular Degeneration – Breakdown of the macula causing central vision loss
  • Medial – The middle of an object
  • Microphthalmos – An abnormally small eyeball
  • Microtia – A congenital ear deformity
  • Modified Impression Technique – A fitting procedure in which a full impression of the socket is taken
  • Monocular – Pertaining to or affecting one eye
  • Motility – In reference to the movement of the implant and the ocular prosthesis
  • Motility Peg (Post) – A stem, peg or post, which connects the ocular prosthesis to the implant in order to achieve efficient transmission of motility to the prosthesis
  • Motion Parallax – The apprarent displacement of objects in space while moving
  • Mucus – The clear, sticky secretion of the mucous membrane
  • Nanophthalmos – An abnormally small eye accompanied by proportionaly small eye structures
  • Nasal – A position towards the nose
  • Ocularist – One who fits and fabricates custom ocular prostheses or artificial eyes
  • Ocular Prosthesis – An artificial eye
  • Oculoplastic Surgeon – An ophthalmologist who has completed additional training in surgical procedures
  • O.D. – Pertaining to the right eye
  • Open Globe – An eyeball that has been cut open as a result of an injury
  • Ophthalmologist – A specialist in medical and surgical eye problems
  • Optician – Eye care professional who fits and makes glasses
  • Optic Nerve – The extension of the brain that transmits visual signals
  • Optometrist – A primary health care professional of the eye
  • Orbital – Referring to cavities in the skull occupied by the eye
  • Orbital Cavity – The anophthalmic socket following an enucleation or exenteration
  • Orbital Implant – A medical device designed to replace a missing visual organ
  • Orbital Recession – The sunken appearance of the anophthalmic orbit cased by the loss and atrophy of tissue following enucleation
  • O.S. – Pertaining to the left eye
  • Osseointegrated Implant – An artificial implant that is directly connected to living bone
  • Palpate – To examine by feeling with the hands or fingers
  • Palpebral – In reference to the eyelid
  • Palpebral Fissure – The opening between the eyelids
  • Palpebral Flaring – The spontaneous, intermittent widening of the palpebral fissure, which often occurs when tissues are without normal tone or tension
  • Papillae – Elevated bumps of conjunctival tissue found on the inside of the eyelids
  • Peripheral Vision – Outer region of the visual field
  • Phthisical – Shrunken
  • Phthisical Globe (Phthisis Bulbi) – The shrinkage of the eyeball after inflammatory disease or injury
  • Polishing (Resurfacing) – The process in which surface scratches and imperfections are removed from the prosthesis to produce a smooth, high gloss surface
  • Porosity – The presence of pits within the acrylic, usually invisible to the unaided eye
  • Posterior – The back or backward part of an object
  • Postoperative Conformer – A temporary prosthesis, most commonly of clear acrylic plastic, used following enucleation, evisceration, and socket reconstruction to preserve culdesacs
  • Pressure Points (Friction Points) – An area in the anophthalmic socket on which there is excessive pressure applied by the posterior surface of the prosthesis
  • Prolapse – The falling down, or sinking, of a part
  • Prosthesis – An artificial part of the body which augments the performance of a natural function
  • Protein Deposits – A surface buildup on the ocular prosthesis of dried socket secretions, requiring periodic polishing by an ocularist
  • Pseudoptosis – The drooping of the eyelid, generally referring to the upper eyelid, caused by diminished orbital volume or an illfitting prosthesis
  • Ptosis – Drooping of the upper or lower eyelid
  • Pupil – The dark central spot in the iris, through which image forming light enters the eye

R – Z

  • Reduction – A decrease in the size of the prosthesis, most commonly to compensate for changes in the anophthalmic socket
  • Relative Brightness – a visual phenomenon in which closer objects reflect more light into the eye
  • Relative Size – A visual phenomenon in which an object that produces a larger retinal image than a similar object will be perceived as being closer
  • Retinitis Pigmentosa – Progressively blinding disease affecting the pigment in the eye
  • Retinoblastoma – a rare malignant tumor of the retina
  • Sclera – The white part of the eye, which forms the major structural coat of the eye
  • Scleral Contact Lens – A flushfitting, clear acrylic, scleral lens, which covers the cornea and a portion of the sclera
  • Scleral Shell Ocular Prosthesis – A flush fitting, opaque acrylic scleral cover fitted over the phthisical or eviscerated globe
  • Self Lubricating Ocular Prosthesis (S.L.P.) – An artificial eye containing an anterior chamber filled with lubrication
  • Silicone – A lubricant compound that does not dissovle in water
  • Soft Tissue – The orbital cavity components of conjunctiva, adipose, ligaments, and muscle
  • Suction Cup – A rubber or silicone vacuum device used to remove the artificial eye
  • Superior Situated – above, or directed upwards
  • Superior Sulcus – The furrow or depression in the upper lid
  • Superior Sulcus Implant – Implants or varied shapes and materials, which are used by the oculoplastic surgeon to correct the recessed superior sulcus
  • Symblepharon – Scarring of the conjunctiva
  • Symmetrical – The balance and equality of all aspects of the ocular prosthesis fitting as compared to the fellow eye
  • Sympathetic Ophthalmia – A condition where the uninjured eye “sympathizes” with the injured eye, developing a significant inflammatory response
  • Tears – The salty, clear, watery fluid, which serves to keep the conjunctiva and the cornea moist and facilitate eye movement
  • Temporary Prosthesis – A restorative device that is an intermediate step between the postoperative conformer and permanent ocular prosthesis
  • Texture Gradient – The amount of detail in an object
  • Trichiasis – The inversion of the eyelashes onto the eyeball causing irritation
  • Unilateral – In reference to one side
  • Vascularization – Growth of blood vessels into a porous implant
  • Viscosity – The thickness of a liquid